Anthony Knap

Anthony Knap

Director, GERG


Holder of the James R. Whatley Chair in Geosciences

  (979) 458-9328

  GERG 140


Oceanography, organic geochemistry, environmental science, atmosphere/ocean interactions, oil pollution and dispersant use, effects of contaminants on the marine environment; ocean health and human health interactions. Global climate change – climate instability, business/science interactions, renewable energy, marine derived bio-fuels, ocean genomics, ocean acidification.

Selected Publications


Anderson, E.E., Wilson, C., Knap, A.H. and Villareal, T.A. (2018) Summer diatom blooms in the eastern North Pacific gyre investigated with a lonf-endurance autonomous surface vehicle. PeerJ6:e5387  (

Schwehr, K. A., Xu, C., Chiu, M-H., Zhang, S., Sun, L., Lin, P., Beaver, M., Jackson, C., Agueda, O., Bergen, C., Chin, W-C., Quigg, A. and Santschi, P.H. Protein/polysaccharide ratio in exopolymeric substances controlling the surface tension of seawater in the presence or absence of surrogate Macondo Oil with and without Corexit. Marine Chemistry. https//doi/10.1006/j.marchem.2018.09.003

Xu, C., Zhang, S., Beaver, M., Lin, Y., Wade, T.L., Schwehr, K.A., Lin, P., Sun, L., Kopp, K., Passow, U., Chin, W.-C., Chiu, M.H., Hatcher, P.G., Knap, A.H., Quigg, A., Santschi, P.H. 2018a. Decreased Sedimentation Efficiency of petro-and non-petro-carbon caused by a dispersant for Macondo surrogate oil in a mesocosm simulation a coastal microbial community. Marine Chemistry,

Bera, G., Parketon, T., Redman, A., Turner, N., Renegar, D., Sericano, J. and Knap, A. (2018) Passive dosing yields dissolved aqueous exposures of crude oil comparable to the CROSERF (Chemical Response to Oil Spill: Ecological Effect Research Forum) water accommodated fraction method. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (

Beskin, K., Holcomb, C., Cammack, J., Crippen, T., Knap, A., Sweet, S. and Tomberlin, J. (2018) Larval digestion of different manure types but the black soldier fly (Diptera stratiomyidae) impacts associated with volatile emissions. Waste Management 74:213-220

Doyle, S.M., Whitaker, E.A., De Pascuale, V., Wade, T.L., Knap, A.H., Santschi, P.H., Quigg, A. and Sylvan, J.B. (2018) Rapid Formation of Microbe-Oil Aggregates and Changes in Community Composition in Coastal Surface Water Following Exposure to Oil and Corexit 9500®. Frontiers in Microbiology 9:689

Chapman, P., Wade T.L. and Knap, A. (2018) Environmental Effects and Management of Oil Spills on Marine Ecosystems. Chapter 25: Environmental Management of Marine Ecosystems CRC press. P119-146

Malone, T. and A.H. Knap (2018) Integrated Coastal Zone Monitoring in Support of Ecosystem Based Management of Marine Ecosystem Services. Chapter 15: Environmental Management of Marine Ecosystems CRC press

DiMarco, S.F., and Knap, A.H. (2018) Coastal Ocean Observing Systems for the 21st Century, Chapter 4: In Advances in Coastal Hydraulics (Panchang, V. and Kaihatu, J. eds) World Scientific, 524p.



 Wade, T.L., Morales-McDevett, M., Bera, G., Sweet, S., Wang, B., Gold-Bouchot, G., Quigg, A. and Knap, A.H. (2017) A method for the Production of large volumes of WAF and CEWAF for Dosing Mesocosms to understand Marine Oil Snow formation. Heliyon 3 (2017) e00419 doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00419

Li, X., Zhang, Z., Wade, T.L., Knap, A.H. and Zhang C.L. (2017) Sources and compositional distribution of organic carbon in surface sediments from the lower Pearl River to the coastal South China Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 122 2104-2117. doi:10.1002/2017JG003981

Knap, A.H., Turner, N., Bera, G., Renegar, A., Frank, T., Sericano, J., and Riegl, M. (2017) Short-term toxicity of 1-methylnapthalene to Americamysis bahia and 5 deep sea crustaceans. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Accepted July 2017 and published online. DOI: 10.1002/etc.3926

Renegar, D.A., Schuler, P., Turner, N., Dodge, R., Reigl, B., Knap, A.H., Bera, G., Jezequel, C. and Benggio (2017) Tropics Field Study (Panama) 32 year site visit: observations and conclusions for near shore dispersant use NEBA and tradeoffs. International Oil Spill Proceedings. Long Beach, California.

Cichocki, J.A., Furuya, S., Venkatratnam, A., McDonald, T.J., Knap, A.H., Wade, T.L., Sweet, S.T., Chiu, W.A., Threadgill, D.W., Rusyn, I. (2017) Characterization of variability in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of tetrachloroethylene using the Collaborative Cross mouse population. Environmental Health Perspectives. 125 057006-1-057006-12.



Cichocki, J.A., Furuya, S., Venkatratnam, A., McDonald, T.J., Knap, A.H., Wade, T., Sweet, S., Chiu, W.A., Threadgill, D.W., Rusyn, I. (2016) Characterization of variability in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of tetrachloroethylene using the Collaborative Cross mouse population. Environmental Health Perspectives (in press). doi: 10.1289/EHP788

Farrington, J.W., Tripp, B.W., Tanabe, T., Subramanian, A., Sericano, T., Wade, T, and Knap, A. (2016) Edward D. Goldberg’s Proposal of “The Mussel Watch” Reflections after 40 years. Marine Pollution Bulletin DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.05.074.

Renegar, A. D., Turner, N.R., Riegl, B.M., Dodge, R.E., Knap, A. and Schuler, P. (2016) Quantifying Hydrocarbon Toxicity to Shallow-water Corals: Range-finding exposure to 1-methylnapthalene. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. DOI: 10.1002/etc.3530.

Knap, A.H. and Rusyn I.  (2016) Environmental Exposures due to Natural Disasters. Reviews on Environmental Health, 31(1):89-92. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2016-0010. 

Wade, T.L., Sericano, J.L., Sweet, S., Knap, A.H., and Guinasso, N.L.) (2016) Spatial and temporal distribution of water column total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from the Deepwater Horizon (Macondo) Incident. Marine Pollution Bulletin,.

Yoo, H.S., Chicocki, J.A., Kim. S., Venkrarum, A., Iwata, Y., Kosyk, O., Bodnar, W., Sweet., S., Knap, A., Wade, T., Campbell, J., Clewell, H.J., Melnyk, S.B., Chiu, W.A. and Rusyn, I. (2015). The contribution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha to the relationship between toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of trichloroethylene. Toxicological Sciences, 07/2015; DOI:10.1093/toxsc/kfv134.

Malone, Thomas C., Paul M. DiGiacomo, Emanuel Gonçalves, Anthony H. Knap, Liana Talaue-McManus and Stephen de Mora. (2014). Enhancing the Global Ocean Observing System to meet evidence needs for the ecosystem-based management of coastal ecosystem services. Natural Resources Forum, 38:161-181.

Malone, T.C., P.M. DiGiacomo, E. Gonçalves, A.H. Knap, L. Talaue-McManus, Stephen de Mora and Jose Muelbert (2014). A global ocean observing system framework for sustainable development. Marine Policy, 43: 262-272.

Lomas, M.W., Bates, N., Johnson, R., Knap, A., Steinberg, D. and Carlson, C. (2012). Two decades and counting: 23 years of sustained open ocean biogeochemical measurements in the Sargasso Sea. 3rd Special Issue on Ocean Time Series, Deep See Research II. (in press).

Lampitt, R.S., Favali, P., Church, M.J., Cronin, M.F., Hill, K.L., Kaneda, Y., Karl, D.M., Knap, A.H., McPhaden, M.J., Nittis, K.A., Preide, I.H., Rolin, J-F., Send, U., Teng, C.C., Trull, T.W., Wallace, D.W.R. and Weller, R.A. (2010) In situ sustained eulerian observatories. In: Proceedings of the Ocean Obs 09.(Vol. 2), doi:10.5270

Bonhommeau, S., Chassot, E., Planque, B., Rivot, E., Knap, A.H. and Le Pape, O. (2008). Impact of climate on eel populations of the northern hemisphere. Marine Ecology Progress Series 373:71-80.

Fleming, L.E., Broad, K, Clement,A., Dewailly, E. Elmir, S., Knap, A., Pomponi, S.A., Smith, S., Solo Gabriele, H. and Walshe, P. (2006). Oceans and human health: Emerging public health risks in the marine environment. Marine Pollut. Bull 2006:53(10-12):545-560.

Dewailly, E. and Knap, A. H. (2006) Food from the Oceans and Human Health. Balancing Risks and Benfits. Oceanography 19 (2) :84-87.

Owen, R., Mitchelmore, C., Woodley, C., Trapido-Rosenthal, H., Galloway, T., Depledge, M., Readman, J., Buxton, L., Sarkins, S., Jones, R. and Knap, A. (2005). A commons sense approach for confronting coral reef decline associated with human activities. Marine Pollution Bull. 205;51(5-7): 481-5.

Ward, J.A., Knap, A. and Short, J.M. (2004). Bermuda welcomes careful prospectors. Nature, 2004 Aug 12;430(7001):723

Venter, J.C., Remington, K., Halpern, A.L., Levy, S., Heidelberg, J., Eisen, J.A., Paulsen, I., Nelson, K.E., Fouts, D.E., Nelson, W., Rusch, D, Knap, A.H., Nealson, K., White, O., Peterson, J., Smith, H.O., Hoffman, J., Parsons, R., Pfannkoch, C., Rogers, Y., Lomas, M.W. (2004) Environmental Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing: The Sargasso Sea. SCIENCE, March 2004 / 10.1126/science.1093857

Conte, M.H., Dickey, T.D., Knap, A.H., Weber, J.C., Jiang, S. and Johnson, R. (2003). Transient physical forcing of pulsed export of bioreactive material to the deep Sargasso Sea. Deep-Sea Research I 50 11571187

Owen, R., Knap, A., Ostrander, N. and Carbery, K. (2003). Comparative acute toxicity of herbicides to phosynthesis of coral zooxanthellae. Bulletin Env. Contam and Toxicology 70 No. 3:541-548.

Dewailly, E., Furgal, C., Knap, A., C, Galvin J, Baden D, Bowen RE, Depledge M, Duguay L, Fleming LE, Ford T, Moser F, Owen R, Suk WA and U Unluata (2002) Indicators of Ocean and Human Health. Canadian Journal of Public Health 93:Supplement 1: S34.

Lomas, M.W., Bates, N.R., Knap, A.H., Karl, D.A., Lukas, R., Landry, M.R., Bidigare, R.R., Steinberg, D.A., and Carlson, C.A. (2002). Refining our understanding of ocean biogeochemistry and ecosystem functioning. EOS 83:559-561.

Lomas, M.R., Bates, N.R., Knap, A.H., Karl, D.M., Likas, R., Landry, M.R., Steinberg, D.K. (2002). Revolutionizing our understanding of oceanic biogeochemistry and ecosystem functioning. EOS 83:559-561.

Owen, R.J., Knap, A.H., Ostrander, N. and Carberry, K. (2002) Comparative acute toxicity of herbicides to photosynthesis of coral zooxanthellae. Bulletin of Contamination and Toxicology.

Knap AH, Dewailly E, Furgal C, Galvin J, Baden D, Bowen RE, Depledge M, Duguay L, Fleming LE, Ford T, Moser F, Owen R, Suk WA and U Unluata (2002): Indicators of Ocean Health and Human Health: Developing a Research and Monitoring Framework. Environ. Health Persp. Vol110 (9) p839-845.

Owen, R., Knap, A., Toespern, M. and Carbery, K (2002) Inhibition of coral photosynthesis by the anti-fouling herbicide Irgarol 1051. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44:623-632

Owen, R., Buxton, L., Sarkis, S., Toaspern, M., Knap, A. and Depledge, M. (2002) An Evaluation of Hemolymph Cholinesterase Activities in the Tropical Scallop, Euvola (Pecten) ziczac, for the Rapid Assessment of Pesticide Exposure. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44:1010-1017.

Karl, D.M., Dore, J.E., Lukas, R., Michaels, A.F., Bates, N.R. and Knap, A.H. (2001). The U.S. JGOFS Time-series Programs. Oceanography, 14 (4):6-17.

Orcutt, K.M., Lipshultz, F., Gundersen, K., Arimoto, R., Michaels, A.F., Knap, A.H. and Gallon, J.R. (2001) Seasonal study and significance of N2 fixations by Trichodesmium spp. at the Bermuda Time-series Study (BATS) site. Deep Sea Research II, 48:1583-1608.

Steinberg, D.K., Carlson, C.A., Bates, N.R., Johnson, R.J., Michaels, A.F. and Knap, A.H. (2001) Overview of the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS): a decade-scale look at ocean biology and biogeochemistry. Deep Sea Research II (BATS/HOT Special Volume) 48:1405-1447

Gundersen, K., Orcutt, K.M., Purdie, D.A., Michaels, A.F. and Knap, A.H. (2001) Particulate organic carbon Mass distribution at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series (BATS) Site. Deep Sea Research II, 48:1697-1718.

Connelly, D.P., Readman, J.W., Knap, A.H. and Davies, J. (2001) Contamination of the coastal waters of Bermuda by Organotins and the triazine herbicide Irgarol 1051. Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol 42, No. 5:409-414, 2001

Wells, P.G., Depledge, M.H., Butler, J.N., Manock, J.J. and Knap, A.H. (2001) Rapid toxicity assessment and biomonitoring of marine contaminants – Exploiting the potential of rapid biomarker assays and microscale toxicity tests. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42 (10):799-804.

Michaels, A.F., Karl, D and Knap A.H. (2000) Temporal studies of biogeochemical dynamics in oligotrophic waters. In: The Changing Ocean Carbon Cycle, Hanson, R.B., Ducklow, H.W.,Field, J.G. eds Cambridge University Press pp. 392-413.

Knap, A., Depledge, M. and Dewailly, E. (2000). Ecosystem indicators of ocean and human health. Epidemiology, 11(4), 697

Additional Information

Recent Professional Activities

2016 Member, Mass Spectrometry Advisory Committee, Texas A&M University

2016 Member, External Advisory Board, Energy Institute, Texas A&M University

2015-present Member, International Advisory Board, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese National Academy of Sciences.

2014-present National Academy of Sciences, Gulf of Mexico Research Program Board

2014-present Board of Directors, Maritime Insurance Solutions, Ltd. Bermuda

2014 Member Review Committee for Institute of Basic Science, Seoul, Korea

2012–present Member, International Steering Committee for the Global Ocean Observing System

2010-2011 Advisory Council – Offshore Energy Institute, Portland, Maine

2010-present Board of Directors, Parhelion Underwriters, London, UK

2009-present Board of Directors, Arvak Management

2008-2010 Member, Geneva Association Panel for Climate Change

2008-present Board of Directors, Shoreline Insurance Managers

2007 Honorary Fellow, Plymouth Marine Laboratory

2007-present Executive Committee, Partnership for Observations of the Global Ocean (POGO)

2006- 2012 President and Director, BIOS

2006-2012 Appointed to Underwriting, Audit and Compensation Committees, Flagstone Reinsurance

2005-2012 Member of Board of Directors, Flagstone Re-insurance Holdings

2003-2006 President and Director, BBSR

2003-2006 Rapporteur for IOC/COOP/GOOS to WMO/JCOMM

2000-2006 Co-Chairman Coastal Observing Panel, GOOS

2000 Convener, BBSR/CORE/Ocean Caucus Congressional Briefing on Ocean and Human Health. Washington DC. February 16, 2000.

Recent Books and Book Chapters

Laffoley D.d’ARoe H.S.J.Angel M.V.Ardron J.Bates N.R.Boyd I.L.Brooke S.Buck K.N.Carlson C.A.Causey B., Rouja P.Roberts J.Seigel D.A.Siuda A.Steinberg D.K.Stevenson A.,Sumaila V.R.Swartz W.Trott T.M.Vats V. (2011) The protection and management of the Sargasso Sea: The golden floating rainforest of the Atlantic Ocean.  Sargasso Sea Alliance, Washington D.C.., ISBN: 978-0-9847520-0-3

Malone, T., Davison, M., DiGiacomo, P., Goncalves, E., Knap, T., Muelbert, J., Parslow, J., Sweijd, N., Yanagai, J and Yap, H. (2010) Climate Change, Sustainable Development and Coastal Ocean Information Needs. InL Proceedings, World Climate Conference -3, Volume 1 p. 324-341.

Faust, E., Herweijer, C. and Knap, A.H. (2009) Physical effects of climate change from an insurance perspective. (Ch 2) The insurance industry and climate change – Contribution to the global debate. The Geneva Association, Geneva, Switzerland (133p). (

Murnane, R.J. and Knap, A.H. (2008) The Risk Prediction Initiative: a successful science-business partnership for analyzing natural hazard risk. (Ch 16) Climate Extremes and Society. (Henry Diaz and Richard J. Murnane eds) 320p.

Dewailly, E., Pereg, D., Knap, A., Rouja, P., Galvin, J. and Owen, R. (2007) Exposure and effects of seafood borne contaminants in maritime populations. In: Ocean and Human Health: risks and remedies from the seas (Walsh, P.J., Smith, S.L., Fleming, L.E., Solo-Gabriele, and Gerwick, W.H. Academic Press (670p)

Malone, T.C., Knap, A.H., and Fogarty, M. (2004). Chapter 19: The Sea, Volume 13, (A. R. Robinson and K. H. Brink , eds). Harvard University Press. p: 757-784.

Knap, A.H., Connolly, D.P. and Butler, J.N.(2000) Chapter 14: The Sargasso Sea and Bermuda. In: The Seas at the Millenium: An Environmental Evaluation (C. Shepard, ed.) Elsevier Science Ltd. p:221-231.

Michaels, A.F., Olson, D., Sarmiento, J.L., Ammerman, J.W., Fanning, K., Jahnke,R., Knap, A.H., Lipshultz, F. and J.M. Prospero. (1996) Inputs, losses and transformations of nitrogen and phosphorous in the pelagic North Atlantic ocean. In : Nitrogen Cycling in the North Atlantic Ocean and its Watersheds (ed Robert W. Howarth) Kluwer Academic Publishers, London p 181-226.

Knap, A.H., Michaels, A.F. and Close, A. (1994) The JGOFS Protocols. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, 198 p.

Knap, A.H. (1992) Biological Impacts of Oil Pollution: Coral Reefs. International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association. London. 18p.

Knap, A. H. (1990) The long range atmospheric transport of compounds from continent to continent and continent to ocean. Proceedings of a NATO ASI Series C: Mathematical and Physical Series. Vol. 297. (Knap, A.H., editor) Klewer , Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, Boston, London p. 321.

Bidleman, T., Atlas, E.A., Atkinson, R., Bonsang, B., Burns, K., Keene, W.C., Knap, A.H., Miller, J., Rudolph, J. and Tanabe, S. (1990) (Chapter 12: The Long-Range Transport of Organic Compounds). Proceedings of a NATO ASI Series C: Mathematical and Physical Series. Vol. 297. (Knap, A.H., editor) Klewer , Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, Boston, London p. 259-305.

Knap, A.H. (1981) Bermuda's Delicate Balance. Pollution, Ch. 22. Bermuda National Trust, Hamilton, Bermuda, p.239-255.

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